Calcium (Ca)

General Properties

Symbol Ca
Atomic Number 20
Atomic Weight 40.078
Group
2 (alkaline earth metals or beryllium family)
IIA (IUPAC), IIA (CAS)
Solid, Paramagnetic, Conductor, Alkaline Earth Metal, Metal, Stable, Natural
Period 4
Block s

Physical Properties

Density 1.55 g/cm3
Atomic Volume 29.9 cm3/mole
Atomic Radius 1.97 angstroms
Covalent Radius 174 pm
Crust Abundance 5%
Crystal Structure Cubic: Face centered
Color Silver

Energy

Electronegativity 1.0 (Pauling Scale)
Electron Affinity 2.37 kJ/mol
1st Ionization Energy 590 kJ/mol
2e Ionization Energy 1145.4 kJ/mol
3e Ionization Energy 4912.4 kJ/mol
4e Ionization Energy 6491 kJ/mol
5e Ionization Energy 8153 kJ/mol
6e Ionization Energy 10496 kJ/mol
7e Ionization Energy 12270 kJ/mol
8e Ionization Energy 14206 kJ/mol
9e Ionization Energy 18191 kJ/mol
10e Ionization Energy 20385 kJ/mol
11e Ionization Energy 57110 kJ/mol
12e Ionization Energy 63410 kJ/mol
13e Ionization Energy 70110 kJ/mol
14e Ionization Energy 78890 kJ/mol
15e Ionization Energy 86310 kJ/mol
16e Ionization Energy 94000 kJ/mol
17e Ionization Energy 104900 kJ/mol
18e Ionization Energy 111711 kJ/mol
19e Ionization Energy 494850 kJ/mol
20e Ionization Energy 527762 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity 0.647 J g−1 K−1
Thermal Conductivity 200.0 W·m−1·K−1

Electrons & Oxidation

Oxidation States 2
Electrons Per Shell 2 8 8 2
Electron Configuration [Ar] 4s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2
Orbital Diagram
1s
↿⇂
2s
↿⇂
2p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3s
↿⇂
3p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3d
 
 
 
 
 
4s
↿⇂
4p
 
 
 
4d
 
 
 
 
 
4f
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Nuclear

Radioactive No

Media

Planetary Bohr Model of Calcium (Ca)
Lewis Dot Diagram of Calcium (Ca)
Description
Fairly hard, silvery-white metal. Fifth most abundant element in the earth's crust (41,500 ppm). Occurs only in compounds.
Uses
Used by many forms of life to make shells and bones. Virtually no use for the pure metal, however two of its compounds are, lime (CaO) and gypsum (CaSO4), are in great demand by a number of industries.
Sources
Obtained from minerals like chalk, limestone & marble. Pure metal is produced by replacing the calcium in lime (calcium carbonate, CaCO3) with aluminium in hot, low pressure retorts.
Pronounciation (English)
KAL-si-em

Translations

Afrikaans Kalsium
Aragonese Calzio
العربية كلسيوم
Armãneashte Caltsiumu
asturianu Calciu
azərbaycan dili Kalsium
български Калций
বাংলা ক্যালসিয়াম
brezhoneg Kalsiom
bosanski Kalcij[um]
Byelorussian Кальцый
Cebuano Kalsyo
čeština Vápník
Chuvash Кальци
Cymraeg Calci
dansk Calcium, Kalcium
Deutsch Kalzium
Ελληνικά Ασβεστιο
English Calcium
esperanto Kalcio
español Calcio
eesti Kaltsium
euskara Kaltzioa
فارسی کلسیم
suomi Kalsium
føroyskt Kalsium
français Calcium
furlan Calci
West-Frysk Kalsium
Gaeilge Cailciam
Gàidhlig Cailciam
galego Calcio
ગુજરાતી કૅલ્શિયમનો
Gaelg Kelkium
Hakka Chinese Koi (鈣)
עברית סידן
हिन्दी कैल्शियम
hrvatski Kalcij
magyar Kalcium
հայերեն Կալցիում
Indonesia Kalsium
íslenska Kalsín
italiano Calcio
日本語 カルシウム
ქართული კალციუმი
کٲشُر Kalcéń
қазақ тілі Кальций
한국어 칼슘
Kurdish Kalsiyûm
Komi Кальций
kernewek Calcyum
кыргызча Кальций
Latin Calcium
Lëtzebuergesch Kalzium
Lombard Calc
lingála Kalisu
lietuvių Kalcis
latviešu Kalcijs
Mari Кальций
Maori Konupūmā
македонски Калциум
മലയാളം കാല്‍‌സ്യം
монгол Кальци
Мокшан Пургев
Bahasa Melayu Kalsium
Malti Kalsjum, ²Kalċju
Nahuatl Tenextepoztli
Nederlands Calcium
norsk Kalsium
Occitan Calci
ирон Кальций
polski Wapń
português Cálcio
Runasimi Isku q'illay, ²Kalsyu
română Calciu
русский Кальций
slovenčina Vápník
slovenščina Kalcij
Samoan Kalsimi
Samogitian Kalcis
shqip Kalcium
српски Калцијум
Southern Sotho Kalsiamo
svenska Kalcium
Kiswahili Kalisi
தமிழ் கலசியம்
Tajik Кальций
ไทย แคลเซียม
Türkçe Kalsiyum
ئۇيغۇرچە كالتىسىي
українська Кальцій
o‘zbek Kalsiy
Tiếng Việt Canxi
Võro Kaltsium
中文

History

Discovered In
1808
Discovered By
Sir Humphrey Davy
Discovered At
England
Word Origin
From the Latin word "calx" meaning "lime"